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Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

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  • Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

    Took out my block plane to cut a couple of chamfers, which was kind of like a smack between the eyes with one of the bronze Lie-Nielsen #4 1/2s. I put chamfers on a lot of things and I've gotten pretty comfortable using my block plane and knuckles for a guide. But a dedicated plane for chamfering would be very useful, particularly for larger chamfers. Well, there's this hand tool build event going on...

    Pretty warm day in the shop, so it was a good excuse to sit down at my bench and draw a plan for the plane:

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    Here's what I came up with:
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    The drawing is at 100% scale.

    The plane will be built around a 1" wide x 1/4" thick iron I purchased from Nice Ash Planes a couple of years ago. He's no longer in the plane-making business but while he was, the irons he produced were a great choice to build a plane around.

    It will be of the moving-box type. While I like the idea of an adjustable fence (and having fence sets for different chamfer angles), those types look a bit clunky to me. And really, I've only ever done 45° chamfers, so don't really need the extra versatility.

    I went looking in my scrap bin and came up with a few possibilities for wood choice:
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    Beech, walnut, white oak, jatoba, padouk. Think I've got some scraps of cherry and sapele floating around, too. Or maybe I'll make it using all the species, like I did with the block plane in the pic. Any opinions?

    I'm also not too keen on the shape of the front of the plane. It is the traditional shape (with the addition of some chamfers), but I tend to gravitate toward curves. There's some constraints due to the adjustable box in the middle of the plane so I'm taking opinions on this aspect, too.
    Mark Kornell, Kornell Wood Design
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  • #2

    Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

    Shoulder plane

    Aside, I just finished building 2 shoulder planes with an adjustable mouth, one for me and one for someone else. This is the one I sent away:

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    As you can see, I like the curvy details. And planes with moving parts. Call it a good warm up for this project :-)

    Yesterday, put the final coat of finish on the one I'm keeping. No pics, but it is essentially identical.
    Mark Kornell, Kornell Wood Design

    Comment


    • #3

      Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

      Re: Shoulder plane

      Wow, very nice Mark.

      I will be watching this, thanks.
      Mike @ Buck Lake

      Comment


      • #4

        Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

        Re: Shoulder plane

        Those are beautiful Mark
        Jerome
        Canada's South Coast

        Port Colborne On.
        Every loaf of bread is a tragic tale of grains that could've become beer.......but didn't....

        Comment


        • #5

          Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

          Orange, anyone?

          Another warmish day in the shop:
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          In the end the wood for the chamfer plane chose itself. No need for a sorting hat. Quartersawn orientation would be the most stable, and the only quartersawn scrap I had was the padauk. So I cut off a chunk.
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          After dressing, it was 1 7/8" wide by 2 1/2" tall. Proceeded to lay out the bed location and angle on the side:
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          And because I'm going to build it sandwich-style, layout the cheeks and center areas on top:
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          The center will be just wider than the iron, about 1 1/32", while the cheeks will be about 1/4". The blank is wide enough to give me plenty of space for a couple of bandsaw kerfs.

          Off to the bandsaw, set the fence by eye:
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          And cut off the first cheek:
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          After cutting off the first cheek, I gave the thick part of the remainder of blank a couple light passes through the planer to get rid of the bandsaw marks and re-establish a reference surface on that side.

          Repeated the process to get the second cheek:
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          At this point the cheeks are approximately 5/16" thick and the center is 1 1/8" thick, both numbers right on target.

          And that was it for the day.

          I'm going to have orange sawdust kicking around for a while, I think:
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          I left the shop at 6:30 and it was like stepping into a blast furnace. The exterior thermometer at the house - in the shade all afternoon - read 38°.
          Mark Kornell, Kornell Wood Design

          Comment


          • #6

            Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

            Re: Orange, anyone?

            Wow, Mark, nice thread! I still don't think I'd enjoy using handplanes, but I sure enjoy watching one being built - very neat process. Also, as a guy who suffered through the worst winter ever and staved off suicide only by clinging to the dream of a long awesomely hot summer but now instead is getting only week after week of mostly cloudy and 22*, I have to say, I'm insanely jealous of your blast furnace too.

            Comment

            • Thread Continues Below...

            • #7

              Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

              Re: Orange, anyone?

              Originally posted by callee View Post
              ..., as a guy who suffered through the worst winter ever and staved off suicide only by clinging to the dream of a long awesomely hot summer but now instead is getting only week after week of mostly cloudy and 22*, I have to say, I'm insanely jealous of your blast furnace too.
              Don't be too envious. With blast furnace weather comes fires. Nearly 300,000 hectares worth of fires in BC so far this year. We've been living in a smoke haze for the last several weeks. This pic was taken from my house at 4:00 pm yesterday and I had to bump up the exposure to get sufficient light.
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              While that looks like impending thunderheads, it isn't. Just smoke clouds.

              We did have a T-storm move through later in the evening. Less than 1 mm rain, which brings the total precip we've had since the beginning of the summer to 4 mm or so.

              Edit: just looked out the window and it is raining. Hopefully it will last longer than 10 minutes.
              Mark Kornell, Kornell Wood Design

              Comment


              • #8

                Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

                Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

                After the blank was sliced up, the three parts were thicknessed to size. Cheeks to just over 1/4" and the middle to 1 1/32".

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                The next step was to clamp the blank together and extend the original layout lines to the bottom of the plane:
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                Note that I'm adding 1" to the back of the plane. I can always cut it down later, but I think the plane will look better if it is a bit longer.

                And then layout the mouth on the middle piece:
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                Note that I only needed to lay out the front of the mouth.

                The next step is to make the angled cut to define the mouth/bed. However, since I need to make several cuts at exactly the same angle, best to cut an angled spacer and use that as a reference for all subsequent cuts. So, use a plywood scrap and make the spacer:
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                The precise angle isn't critical, anywhere from 45° to 55° would probably work well. Just as long as all the cuts are exactly the same.

                Now, use the spacer to line up
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                and cut
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                the mouth/bed.

                Put the pieces back together and line them up using the marks:
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                But wait! The mouth opening needs to be more than a saw kerf wide! So shift the center piece back to create the opening:
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                At this point, I decided to make the mouth opening 1/4" longer, and then I redrew the layout mark for the back of the plane.
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                And this is with the extraneous layout marks erased and another inch added at the end to be trimmed off after glueup.
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                Cut off the extra bits:
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                Set out everything for glueup:
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                And create a clamp monster
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                Mark Kornell, Kornell Wood Design

                Comment


                • #9

                  Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

                  Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

                  Which glue do you use for padauk? I've had difficulties in the past.

                  Comment


                  • #10

                    Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

                    Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

                    Originally posted by bender View Post
                    Which glue do you use for padauk? I've had difficulties in the past.
                    Bender,

                    I've not used a lot of padauk so I can only answer from limited experience - Titebond II has worked for me without a failure. I am using liquid hide glue on this plane, which is the first time I've tried it with padauk. I suppose time will tell if that was a good choice.
                    Mark Kornell, Kornell Wood Design

                    Comment


                    • #11

                      Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

                      Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

                      Thanks for the detailed write up, it will be a beautiful plane.
                      I forgot how beautiful your shop and location is. Hopefully the thunder storm does not start any more fires near you or any where.
                      Jerome
                      Canada's South Coast

                      Port Colborne On.
                      Every loaf of bread is a tragic tale of grains that could've become beer.......but didn't....

                      Comment

                      • Thread Continues Below...

                      • #12

                        Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

                        Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

                        I built a jewelry box from Padauk... Used pva and had to redo the lid glue up 2x. Switched to polyurethane and it worked great.

                        Sent from my GT-N7105 using Tapatalk 2

                        Comment


                        • #13

                          Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

                          Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

                          Got the body out of the clamps and started working on the moving box. The cutoff from the center of the body becomes the box, as it is the perfect width. Checking the fit:
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                          Yup, seems to work. I drew a line on the box blank to show the angle it needs

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                          The box is too tall to fit inside the plane, so I cut it down to the corner of the angle:
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                          In retrospect, this was a bit premature. Read on and I'll explain.

                          Next, see if the box blank fits through the plane:
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                          And cut off the angle at the bottom, using the same 50° triangle I used to create the cut for the opening in the plane.
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                          Check the fit and angle, seems to be good:
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                          Because the box blank is exactly the same width of the opening, the fit is very tight. Too tight to be useful - I needed to use a hammer to tap the blank out. So I use some sandpaper to take off a very small amount of the box blank:
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                          Perhaps 15 strokes and the fit is much better. There's enough friction so that the box won't fall out, but can be easily moved.

                          The next step is to create the wedge by cutting it off the box blank. I want the wedge to be 8°, so I use another plywood scrap to cut the template angle:
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                          and then use that to cut the wedge from the box blank:
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                          And check the fit again, with the box, wedge and iron:

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                          And this is where I realized I'd gotten ahead of myself. The fit is perfect, but the wedge is barely long enough. I should have cut the wedge from the box blank when it was at the original size. The wedge would have been considerably longer and given me more options for shaping it later. What I've got will work, but only just. However, because I made the angle template, I could always cut a longer wedge from some other scrap piece.

                          The last task I did today was to cut the V into the bottom of the plane. Tilt the saw blade to 45° and set the fence to about 7/32". I want to end up with about 3/16" thick walls at the bottom of the plane, so I'll cut at 7/32" first.

                          Line it up, but make sure the blade is somewhat lower than what it needs to be:
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                          Then make two cuts, one on each side. You'll end up with 2 pieces of scrap, and a small notch at the top of the V

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                          Raise the blade and recut, sneaking up on a perfect V. Once the cut is perfect, bump the fence in very slightly, maybe 1/64". Then do one more set of cuts - this will clean up any saw marks on the bottom of the plane. The cheek ends up being slight over the target width, but that leaves a bit of material that can be sanded off to clean up the outside of the plane.

                          Because I didn't adjust the blade height after making the last cuts, there was a tiny nib at the top of the V. I removed the nib using the plane's iron, but any sharp chisel would do.
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                          Mark Kornell, Kornell Wood Design

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                          • #14

                            Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

                            Cutting the box mouth

                            Next step was to cut the mouth of the box. First, though, needed to cut the box to approximate height. I marked a line 2 1/4" up from the bottom and used my 50° wedge to make the cut:
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                            For visual reference, I laid out the two angles to cut inside the box. All the cutting happens inside the box.

                            Ultimately, the box will be 2 1/8" high, so I marked that at the top. And then added another line at midpoint, where the angle inside changes. The first angle is 105° from the bottom of the box, so that gets laid out from the bottom front corner to the midline. From that point, the mouth changes slope to open up fully at the top. That worked out to an angle of 75°.
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                            There are several ways to make the requisite cuts. Handsaw and chisel. Bandsaw. Router with a jig. I chose to do it on the tablesaw, which meant making a couple of ramps to tilt the mouth. The first at 15° and the second at 40°.
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                            Those get clamped (in turn) well to my crosscut sled.
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                            And then I take light passes over the saw (holding the piece securely) to creep up to the cut lines
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                            Switch ramps, and eventually the box looks like:
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                            At this point, time for some testing
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                            It works, sort of. The mouth clogs up quickly. I haven't worked on the shape of the wedge yet, and quite likely the mouth needs to be opened up a bit.

                            Note, my method of cutting the mouth on the tablesaw is a bit dodgy. In hindsight, it would have been better to build a jig that held the box at the right angle via clamp. Or use another tool.
                            Mark Kornell, Kornell Wood Design

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                            • #15

                              Re: Hand tool build - Chamfer plane

                              Re: Cutting the box mouth

                              Looks fantastic. I have really enjoyed following this thread

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